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"This is Cordyceps Nori. The price is very affordable. Do you need it? "
Spring Festival 2017 approach, high-end gifts and health products market once again hot. The reporter asked about the price of Cordyceps sinensis in a store in Xudong, Wuhan. Many shop assistants pointed to a beautifully wrapped gift box and introduced it to reporters. The price of a box of North Cordyceps is actually only between a few hundred yuan and a thousand yuan.
It turned out that because of the rarity of Cordyceps sinensis, a kind of Cordyceps sinensis gradually became popular in the market and was welcomed. This species of North Cordyceps, also known as Cordyceps, Cordyceps, and Cordyceps, is said to have a higher content of pygmy than Cordyceps sinensis.
"Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps sinensis were originally very rare, but because Cordyceps sinensis has been artificially cultivated, it has risen to the market as a new force at an affordable price. " said an industry expert.
Is Chrysalis really better than cordyceps? From Cordyceps sinensis to Cordyceps Chrysalis, what kind of changes are taking place in the cordyceps industry?
Cordyceps, no longer just Cordyceps
The folk proverb said: one or two wormwood two gold. Cordyceps was originally an abbreviation of Cordyceps sinensis. However, because of the declining annual resources of Cordyceps sinensis, various types of "Cordyceps" have emerged in competition, and Cordyceps has become an industry.
"The concept of cordyceps is very wide, there are more than 400 species, and Cordyceps sinensis is more than 400 species"-Weijiangchun, a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a researcher of the State Key Laboratory of Fungi, once analyzed this.
Cordyceps sinensis is mainly produced in Alpine Meadows in Qinghai, Tibet, Sichuan, and Yunnan. It is a complex of the larvae of Cordyceps sinensis and its parasitic bat moth larvae. Every summer, a butterfly called the bat moth on the Tibetan Plateau produces eggs in the soil. When the larvae of the bat moth are infected with a fungus(ergot) in the soil, the fungus absorbs nutrients in its larvae and reproduces, causing the larvae to fill the body with mycelium and die. At the beginning of the summer of the following year, the bacteria in the infected worm began to germinate, drilling from the head of the worm to the ground, resembling a young grass, that is, growing into Cordyceps sinensis.
The records of Cordyceps sinensis in China were first seen in the Qing Dynasty. The 1990 edition of the "People's Republic of China Pharmacopoeia" included Cordyceps sinensis. The "Modern Chinese Dictionary" has such a description: Chinese medicine is a valuable tonic, used to supplement lungs and kidneys, treat asthma, waist pain, spermatorrhea and other diseases.
In the 1970s, Cordyceps sinensis and ginseng and antler antler were regarded as "three treasures of traditional Chinese medicine" as traditional supplements.
At that time, the National purchase price of Cordyceps sinensis in Qinghai and Tibet was only 21 yuan per kilogram. Today, in Beijing, Shanghai and Han Dynasty, the price of Cordyceps sinensis is basically higher than 300,000 yuan per kilogram, and the maximum price has exceeded 700,000 yuan.
However, in the past 40 years, the price has increased by more than 10,000 times.
"Things are rare for money." The chance of bat moth larvae being infected and grown into Cordyceps sinensis is very low, and artificial cultivation of Cordyceps sinensis has not been realized. In addition to over-harvesting, Cordyceps sinensis production is very limited, and it decreases year by year. In 2016, the output of the main production area of Cordyceps sinensis has dropped to 60 % in 2015. Demand is rising year after year, in stark contrast to the decline in cordyceps production. According to the "2015-2020 China Cordyceps Industry Research and Market Investment Decision Report," the size of the Chinese Cordyceps market will reach 19.7 billion yuan by 2020.
In order to meet the market demand, many new products called "Wormworm" have been emerging. For example, aromatics distributed in Hunan, Anhui, Guangxi, and other places are distributed in Liangshan Wormworm in Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan and other places. Silkworm, white Silkworm, Driven by the interests, the cordyceps industry is chaotic and clustered, and many of them are almost indistinguishable from the real cordyceps, but the nutrients are very different.
Cordyceps, it's not easy to say I love you.
On February 4, 2016, the State Administration of Food and Drug Administration released the "Consumer Tips for Cordyceps sinensis Products" on its official website. It was just 161 words, which sounded the alarm bell for the chaos in the cordyceps industry.
The prompt stated that the General Administration of Food and Drug Administration organized the monitoring and inspection of Cordyceps sinensis, Cordyceps sinensis powder and pure powder products. Arsenic content in the products tested ranged from 4.4 to 9.9 mg/kg, while the national standard limit of 1.0 mg/kg was more than four times higher. Experts pointed out that long-term consumption of Cordyceps sinensis, Cordyceps sinensis powder and pure powder and other products will cause arsenic overdose, there is a high risk.
The removal of arsenic content far exceeds the limit value, and the heavy metal of Cordyceps sinensis is far more than this one. The layer of fraud, the addition of predilection .... the "black industrial chain" of Cordyceps is even more shocking.
In order to increase the weight of Cordyceps sinensis, black traders often add heavy metal powder. The earliest use of heavy metal Molybdenum dioxide, followed by lead powder, and even Mercury injection.
"The fraud is for weight gain. "The president of the Cordyceps sinensis Association of Qinghai Province, Latin American and Cai Dan, said. Under the great temptation of Guibi Gold, the addition of heavy metal powder by caterpillar traders has been an open secret in the industry.
Professor Shennanying, known as the "Father of Chinese Cordyceps," had witnessed this processing process. "A $800 bottle of Molybdenum dioxide, put a little glue on the top of the worm junction. "If you put a little bit on it, you will double your weight. There is one or two adulteration per kilogram of cordyceps, which is a huge profit of nearly 10,000 yuan.
There is also waste grass processing. There are insects without grass, or grass without insects, the industry is called "waste grass." Waste grass fraud, unscrupulous merchants have developed a complete set of techniques: using glue, bamboo sticks, followed by hydrogen peroxide, alum, sulfur, safflower water, etc., for processing, dyeing, etc., will stick the true insect body to artificial processing The prosthetic seat, Or glue the pseudoinsect body to the true sub-seat, to be true and mixed with good wormwood.
In addition, the use of sulfur fumigation to preserve Cordyceps sinensis has also become an open means in the industry, which has also led to a large amount of sulfur and mercury in Cordyceps.
The most technical forgery is to soak the liquid containing starch and special formulas. Due to the emptying of parasitic bacteria in the body of Cordyceps sinensis, soaking allows those semi-dissolved substances to adhere to the hollow structure of the body of Cordyceps sinensis. After drying, the weight is greatly increased.
The destruction of the environment is another consequence of the caterpillar industry. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the hometown of Cordyceps sinensis. Prior to this, due to the Tibetan people's awe of their own living land, coupled with the state's implementation of the unified purchase and sale of Cordyceps sinensis, the excavation of cordyceps was very cautious. When it is necessary to use cordyceps as a medicinal material, some of them are collected with piety and awe. They can dig only 5 pounds of 50 pounds, dig back, and leave no pits to avoid destroying the meadow vegetation.
In the past ten years or so, the price of Cordyceps sinensis has grown at a geometric level, and the number of Diggers has expanded at an unprecedented rate. Many areas have been over-dug and even exhausted. In Qinghai, the phenomenon of worm-worm overdigging has been alarming.
The consequences of indiscriminate excavation directly lead to a decrease in the production and quality of Cordyceps sinensis. What is more serious is the impact on the entire plateau ecological environment. It has been calculated that only the "Sanjiangyuan" area in Qinghai Province has destroyed hundreds of thousands of square meters of grassland each year due to the excavation of cordyceps. The vast grassy mountains are full of loose soil and caves left after excavation, which has brought a heavy burden to the plateau.
Cordyceps cordyceps industry chaos, calling for the emergence of "alternatives." Many scientific research institutions tried to artificially cultivate Cordyceps sinensis but failed. A species of cordyceps called "Cordyceps" has been pushed to the forefront of the industry in recent years and has become a "worm star" because its nutritional composition and efficacy can be compared with that of Cordyceps sinensis and can be artificially cultivated.
The Chrysalis is revolutionizing the industry.
First spread the knowledge, what is the Chrysalis? The model species of Cordyceps, Aspergillus, Cordyceps, Cordyceps, and Cordyceps. In 1950, the German scientist Cunningham observed that the insect tissue parasitized by Cordyceps sinensis was not prone to decay, and then a antibacterial substance was isolated from it and named Cordyceps sinensis. Cordyceps is the most valuable nutrient component of Cordyceps, and is also the main reference for measuring the quality of Cordyceps pupae.
According to a number of authoritative institutions such as the Chinese Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the Fourth Military Medical University, and the Guangzhou Test Center, it has been found that Cordyceps and Cordyceps sinensis contain pyretic acid, pyrethrum, adenosine, cordyceps polysaccharide, multiple amino acids, and other trace elements. Moreover, it is particularly important that scientific tests have found that In the content of cordyceps, adenosine, cordyceps polysaccharide, and amino acids, Cordyceps is much higher than Cordyceps sinensis. For example, the content of cordyceps sinensis, Cordyceps sinensis detection value was 0.007 %, Cordyceps detection value was 0.351 %, Cordyceps sinensis 50 times higher than Cordyceps sinensis. In addition to nutritional value, Cordyceps sinensis does not have various ills of Cordyceps sinensis.
These research results were published in authoritative magazines such as "Chinese Edible Fungi" and "Edible Fungi", which attracted widespread attention from the worm-grass industry and set off a wave of replacing Cordyceps sinensis with Cordyceps. This has not only promoted the academic community to conduct in-depth research on the pupa fungus, but also led many companies to invest in the cultivation and processing of pupa fungus. The entry of the company has led to the rapid expansion of the cultivation scale of Cordyceps sinensis, and the cultivation technology has also matured. The output has risen year by year. The direct reduction of Cordyceps sinensis's Jiagela to three to four thousand yuan per kilogram, Cordyceps is no longer exclusive to nobles, but has become a public share.
The reporter once went to a company in Hubei to investigate. This company used to grow apricot mushrooms as its main business. After discovering the huge market prospects of Cordyceps, it turned to the breeding and large-scale cultivation of Cordyceps in 2013. After several years of hard work, The leading plant and cultivation workshop of Cordyceps sinensis has been built in China, and 800 pounds of dried Cordyceps can be produced every day. According to the statistics of the China Fungal Association, its output has accounted for 6 % of the country's total. The company also named the new crown in 2015 with a project of Chrysalis, and landed on the listing of the Wuhan Stock Exchange Center, dedicated to creating the first domestic Chrysalis. The wealth effect of Chrysalis is reflected in such a company. The new crown shares are only a microcosm of many Chrysalis practitioners.
"As more and more consumers come into contact with Caterpillar, it is believed that the chaos in the industry of Cordyceps will also be contained and regulated. Because as long as the market enters rational consumption, it will chase value, not hype. "A university professor at the Medical College commented on this when talking about Cordyceps.
Ancient poetry cloud: "In the old days, Wang Xietang was in front of Yan and flew into the homes of ordinary people. "A revolution in the cordyceps industry is brewing because of the caterpillar fungus.